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考研真题——2001年考研英语

作者:  2020-10-29 12:07:16  阅读量:


Section A

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one

that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in

the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)

1. If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I _______ my head in my hands for a cry.

[A] bury [B] am burying [C] buried [D] would bury

2. Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port _______ half a day

before the defenders actually surrendered.

[A] to announce [B] announced [C] announcing [D] was announced

3. According to one belief, if truth is to be known it will make itself apparent, so one _______ wait instead of

searching for it.

[A] would rather [B] had to [C] cannot but [D] had best

4. She felt suitably humble just as she _______ when he had first taken a good look at her city self, hair waved

and golden, nails red and pointed.

[A] had [B] had had [C] would have had [D] has had

5. There was no sign that Mr. Jospin, who keeps a firm control on the party despite _______ from leadership of it,

would intervene personally.

[A] being resigned [B] having resigned [C] going to resign [D] resign

6. So involved with their computers _______ that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to

break for sports and games.

[A] became the children [B] become the children

[C] had the children become [D] do the children become

7. The individual TV viewer invariably senses that he or she is _______ an anonymous, statistically insignificant

part of a huge and diverse audience.

[A] everything except [B] anything but

[C] no less than [D] nothing more than

8. One difficulty in translation lies in obtaining a concept match. _______ this is meant that a concept in one

language is lost or changed in meaning in translation.

[A] By [B] In [C] For [D] With

9. Conversation becomes weaker in a society that spends so much time listening and being talked to _______ it

has all but lost the will and the skill to speak for itself.

[A] as [B] which [C] that [D] what


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10. Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, _______ they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist,

Jewish, and so on.

[A] be [B] being [C] were [D] are

Section B

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one

that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in

the brackets with a pencil. (10 points)

11. He is too young to be able to _______ between right and wrong.

[A] discard [B] discern [C] disperse [D] disregard

12. It was no _______ that his car was seen near the bank at the time of the robbery.

[A] coincidence [B] convention [C] certainty [D] complication

13. One of the responsibilities of the Coast Guard is to make sure that all ships _______ follow traffic rules in busy

harbors.

[A] cautiously [B] dutifully [C] faithfully [D] skillfully

14. The Eskimo is perhaps one of the most trusting and considerate of all Indians but seems to be _______ the

welfare of his animals.

[A] critical about [B] indignant at [C] indifferent to [D] subject to

15. The chairman of the board _______ on me the unpleasant job of dismissing good workers the firm can no

longer afford to employ.

[A] compelled [B] posed [C] pressed [D] tempted

16. It is naive to expect that any society can resolve all the social problems it is faced with _______.

[A] for long [B] in and out [C] once for all [D] by nature

17. Using extremely different decorating schemes in adjoining rooms may result in _______ and lack of unity in

style.

[A] conflict [B] confrontation [C] disturbance [D] disharmony

18. The Timber rattlesnake is now on the endangered species list, and is extinct in two eastern states in which it

once _______.

[A] thrived [B] swelled [C] prospered [D] flourished

19. However, growth in the fabricated metals industry was able to _______ some of the decline in the iron and

steel industry.

[A] overturn [B] overtake [C] offset [D] oppress

20. Because of its intimacy, radio is usually more than just a medium; it is _______.

[A] firm [B] company [C] corporation [D] enterprise

21. When any non-human organ is transplanted into a person, the body immediately recognizes it as _______.

[A] novel [B] remote [C] distant [D] foreign

22. My favorite radio song is the one I first heard on a thick 1923 Edison disc I _______ at a garage sale.

[A] trifled with [B] scraped through [C] stumbled upon [D] thirsted for

23. Some day software will translate both written and spoken language so well that the need for any common

second language could _______.


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[A] descend [B] decline [C] deteriorate [D] depress

24. Equipment not _______ official safety standards has all been removed from the workshop.

[A] conforming to [B] consistent with [C] predominant over [D] providing for

25. As an industry, biotechnology stands to _______ electronics in dollar volume and perhaps surpass it in social

impact by 2020.

[A] contend [B] contest [C] rival [D] strive

26. The authors of the United States Constitution attempted to establish an effective national government while

preserving _______ for the states and liberty for individuals.

[A] autonomy [B] dignity [C] monopoly [D] stability

27. For three quarters of its span on Earth, life evolved almost as _______ microorganisms.

[A] precisely [B] instantly [C] initially [D] exclusively

28. The introduction of gunpowder gradually made the bow and arrow _______, particularly in Western Europe.

[A] obscure [B] obsolete [C] optional [D] overlapping

29. Whoever formulated the theory of the origin of the universe, it is just _______ and needs proving.

[A] spontaneous [B] hypothetical [C] intuitive [D] empirical

30. The future of this company is _______: many of its talented employees are flowing into more profitable net-

based businesses.

[A] at odds [B] in trouble [C] in vain [D] at stake


Directions:

For each numbered blank in the following passage, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D].

Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the

brackets with a pencil. (10 points)

The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in promi-

nent cases ?31? the trial of Rosemary West.

In a significant ?32? of legal controls over the press, Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor, will introduce a ?33?

bill that will propose making payments to witnesses ?34? and will strictly control the amount of ?35? that can

be given to a case ?36? a trial begins.

In a letter to Gerald Kaufman, chairman of the House of Commons Media Select Committee, Lord Irvine said

he ?37? with a committee report this year which said that self regulation did not ?38? sufficient control.

?39? of the letter came two days after Lord Irvine caused a ?40? of media protest when he said the ?41?

of privacy controls contained in European legislation would be left to judges ?42? to Parliament.

The Lord Chancellor said introduction of the Human Rights Bill, which ?43? the European Convention on

Human Rights legally ?44? in Britain, laid down that everybody was ?45? to privacy and that public figures

could go to court to protect themselves and their families.

“Press freedoms will be in safe hands ?46? our British judges,” he said.

Witness payments became an ?47? after West was sentenced to 10 life sentences in 1995. Up to 19 witnesses

were ?48? to have received payments for telling their stories to newspapers. Concerns were raised ?49? wit-

nesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to ?50? guilty verdicts.


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31. [A] as to [B] for instance [C] in particular

[D] such as

32. [A] tightening [B] intensifying [C] focusing [D] fastening

33. [A] sketch [B] rough [C] preliminary

[D] draft

34. [A] illogical [B] illegal [C] improbable

[D] improper

35. [A] publicity [B] penalty [C] popularity [D] peculiarity

36. [A] since [B] if [C] before

[D] as

37. [A] sided [B] shared [C] complied

[D] agreed

38. [A] present [B] offer [C] manifest

[D] indicate

39. [A] Release [B] Publication [C] Printing [D] Exposure

40. [A] storm [B] rage [C] flare

[D] flash

41. [A] translation [B] interpretation [C] exhibition [D] demonstration

42. [A] better than [B] other than [C] rather than [D] sooner than

43. [A] changes [B] makes [C] sets

[D] turns

44. [A] binding [B] convincing [C] restraining

[D] sustaining

45. [A] authorized [B] credited [C] entitled [D] qualified

46. [A] with [B] to [C] from

[D] by

47. [A] impact [B] incident [C] inference

[D] issue

48. [A] stated [B] remarked [C] said

[D] told

49. [A] what [B] when [C] which

[D] that

50. [A] assure [B] confide [C] ensure

[D] guarantee



Directions:

Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked

[A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark

your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (40 points)

Passage 1

Specialization can be seen as a response to the problem of an increasing accumulation of scientific knowledge.

By splitting up the subject matter into smaller units, one man could continue to handle the information and use it as

the basis for further research. But specialization was only one of a series of related developments in science affecting

the process of communication. Another was the growing professionalisation of scientific activity.

No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professionals and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found

to any rule. Nevertheless, the word “amateur” does carry a connotation that the person concerned is not fully inte-

grated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not fully share its values. The growth of specialization in

the nineteenth century, with its consequent requirement of a longer, more complex training, implied greater problems

for amateur participation in science. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially

on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United

Kingdom.

A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an


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increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable

research paper. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their

own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only

if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to

pursue local studies in the old way. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals

harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national

journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. As a logical

consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional

or amateur readership. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together

nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies

or to come together nationally in a different way.

Although the process of professionalisation and specialization was already well under way in British geology

during the nineteenth century, its full consequences were thus delayed until the twentieth century. In science

generally, however, the nineteenth century must be reckoned as the crucial period for this change in the structure of

science.

51. The growth of specialization in the 19th century might be more clearly seen in sciences such as _______.

[A] sociology and chemistry [B] physics and psychology

[C] sociology and psychology [D] physics and chemistry

52. We can infer from the passage that _______.

[A] there is little distinction between specialization and professionalisation

[B] amateurs can compete with professionals in some areas of science

[C] professionals tend to welcome amateurs into the scientific community

[D] amateurs have national academic societies but no local ones

53. The author writes of the development of geology to demonstrate _______.

[A] the process of specialization and professionalisation

[B] the hardship of amateurs in scientific study

[C] the change of policies in scientific publications

[D] the discrimination of professionals against amateurs

54. The direct reason for specialization is _______.

[A] the development in communication [B] the growth of professionalisation

[C] the expansion of scientific knowledge [D] the splitting up of academic societies

Passage 2

A great deal of attention is being paid today to the so-called digital divide?the division of the world into the

info (information) rich and the info poor. And that divide does exist today. My wife and I lectured about this looming

danger twenty years ago. What was less visible then, however, were the new, positive forces that work against the

digital divide. There are reasons to be optimistic.

There are technological reasons to hope the digital divide will narrow. As the Internet becomes more and more

commercialized, it is in the interest of business to universalize access?after all, the more people online, the more

potential customers there are. More and more governments, afraid their countries will be left behind, want to spread

Internet access. Within the next decade or two, one to two billion people on the planet will be netted together. As a


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result, I now believe the digital divide will narrow rather than widen in the years ahead. And that is very good news

because the Internet may well be the most powerful tool for combating world poverty that we’ve ever had.

Of course, the use of the Internet isn’t the only way to defeat poverty. And the Internet is not the only tool we

have. But it has enormous potential.

To take advantage of this tool, some impoverished countries will have to get over their outdated anti-colonial

prejudices with respect to foreign investment. Countries that still think foreign investment is an invasion of their

sovereignty might well study the history of infrastructure (the basic structural foundations of a society) in the United

States. When the United States built its industrial infrastructure, it didn’t have the capital to do so. And that is why

America’s Second Wave infrastructure?including roads, harbors, highways, ports and so on?were built with

foreign investment. The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French were investing in Britain’s former colony.

They financed them. Immigrant Americans built them. Guess who owns them now? The Americans. I believe the

same thing would be true in places like Brazil or anywhere else for that matter. The more foreign capital you have

helping you build your Third Wave infrastructure, which today is an electronic infrastructure, the better off you’re

going to be. That doesn’t mean lying down and becoming fooled, or letting foreign corporations run uncontrolled.

But it does mean recognizing how important they can be in building the energy and telecom infrastructures needed to

take full advantage of the Internet.

55. Digital divide is something _______.

[A] getting worse because of the Internet [B] the rich countries are responsible for

[C] the world must guard against [D] considered positive today

56. Governments attach importance to the Internet because it _______.

[A] offers economic potentials [B] can bring foreign funds

[C] can soon wipe out world poverty [D] connects people all over the world

57. The writer mentioned the case of the United States to justify the policy of _______.

[A] providing financial support overseas [B] preventing foreign capital’s control

[C] building industrial infrastructure [D] accepting foreign investment

58. It seems that now a country’s economy depends much on _______.

[A] how well-developed it is electronically

[B] whether it is prejudiced against immigrants

[C] whether it adopts America’s industrial pattern

[D] how much control it has over foreign corporations

Passage 3

Why do so many Americans distrust what they read in their newspapers? The American Society of Newspaper

Editors is trying to answer this painful question. The organization is deep into a long self-analysis known as the

journalism credibility project.

Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about factual errors and spelling and

grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head-scratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really

want.

But the sources of distrust go way deeper. Most journalists learn to see the world through a set of standard

templates (patterns) into which they plug each day’s events. In other words, there is a conventional story line in the

newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready-made narrative structure for otherwise confusing news.


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There exists a social and cultural disconnect between journalists and their readers, which helps explain why

the “standard templates” of the newsroom seem alien to many readers. In a recent survey, questionnaires were sent

to reporters in five middle-size cities around the country, plus one large metropolitan area. Then residents in these

communities were phoned at random and asked the same questions.

Replies show that compared with other Americans, journalists are more likely to live in upscale neighborhoods,

have maids, own Mercedeses, and trade stocks, and they’re less likely to go to church, do volunteer work, or put

down roots in a community.

Reporters tend to be part of a broadly defined social and cultural elite, so their work tends to reflect the conven-

tional values of this elite. The astonishing distrust of the news media isn’t rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial

skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers.

This is an explosive situation for any industry, particularly a declining one. Here is a troubled business that

keeps hiring employees whose attitudes vastly annoy the customers. Then it sponsors lots of symposiums and a

credibility project dedicated to wondering why customers are annoyed and fleeing in large numbers. But it never

seems to get around to noticing the cultural and class biases that so many former buyers are complaining about. If it

did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who

differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class.

59. What is the passage mainly about?

[A] Needs of the readers all over the world.

[B] Causes of the public disappointment about newspapers.

[C] Origins of the declining newspaper industry.

[D] Aims of a journalism credibility project.

60. The results of the journalism credibility project turned out to be _______.

[A] quite trustworthy [B] somewhat contradictory

[C] very illuminating [D] rather superficial

61. The basic problem of journalists as pointed out by the writer lies in their _______.

[A] working attitude [B] conventional lifestyle

[C] world outlook [D] educational background

62. Despite its efforts, the newspaper industry still cannot satisfy the readers owing to its _______.

[A] failure to realize its real problem [B] tendency to hire annoying reporters

[C] likeliness to do inaccurate reporting [D] prejudice in matters of race and gender

Passage 4

The world is going through the biggest wave of mergers and acquisitions ever witnessed. The process sweeps

from hyperactive America to Europe and reaches the emerging countries with unsurpassed might. Many in these

countries are looking at this process and worrying: “Won’t the wave of business concentration turn into an uncontrol-

lable anti-competitive force?”

There’s no question that the big are getting bigger and more powerful. Multinational corporations accounted for

less than 20% of international trade in 1982. Today the figure is more than 25% and growing rapidly. International

affiliates account for a fast-growing segment of production in economies that open up and welcome foreign invest-

ment. In Argentina, for instance, after the reforms of the early 1990s, multinationals went from 43% to almost 70%

of the industrial production of the 200 largest firms. This phenomenon has created serious concerns over the role of


8


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smaller economic firms, of national businessmen and over the ultimate stability of the world economy.

I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&A wave are the same that underlie the

globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and

enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers’ demands. All these are beneficial,

not detrimental, to consumers. As productivity grows, the world’s wealth increases.

Examples of benefits or costs of the current concentration wave are scanty. Yet it is hard to imagine that the

merger of a few oil firms today could recreate the same threats to competition that were feared nearly a century ago

in the U.S., when the Standard Oil trust was broken up. The mergers of telecom companies, such as WorldCom,

hardly seem to bring higher prices for consumers or a reduction in the pace of technical progress. On the contrary,

the price of communications is coming down fast. In cars, too, concentration is increasing?witness Daimler and

Chrysler, Renault and Nissan?but it does not appear that consumers are being hurt.

Yet the fact remains that the merger movement must be watched. A few weeks ago, Alan Greenspan warned

against the megamergers in the banking industry. Who is going to supervise, regulate and operate as lender of last

resort with the gigantic banks that are being created? Won’t multinationals shift production from one place to another

when a nation gets too strict about infringements to fair competition? And should one country take upon itself the

role of “defending competition” on issues that affect many other nations, as in the U.S. vs. Microsoft case?

63. What is the typical trend of businesses today?

[A] To take in more foreign funds. [B] To invest more abroad.

[C] To combine and become bigger. [D] To trade with more countries.

64. According to the author, one of the driving forces behind M&A wave is _______.

[A] the greater customer demands [B] a surplus supply for the market

[C] a growing productivity [D] the increase of the world’s wealth

65. From paragraph 4 we can infer that _______.

[A] the increasing concentration is certain to hurt consumers

[B] WorldCom serves as a good example of both benefits and costs

[C] the costs of the globalization process are enormous

[D] the Standard Oil trust might have threatened competition

66. Toward the new business wave, the writer’s attitude can be said to be _______.

[A] optimistic [B] objective [C] pessimistic [D] biased

Passage 5

When I decided to quit my full time employment it never occurred to me that I might become a part of a new

international trend. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress prompted me to abandon

my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by

claiming “I wanted to spend more time with my family”.

Curiously, some two-and-a-half years and two novels later, my experiment in what the Americans term “down-

shifting” has turned my tired excuse into an absolute reality. I have been transformed from a passionate advocate of

the philosophy of “having it all”, preached by Linda Kelsey for the past seven years in the pages of She magazine,

into a woman who is happy to settle for a bit of everything.

I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much publicized resignation from the editorship of She

after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of “juggling your life”, and making the alternative move into


9


“downshifting” brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status. Nothing could persuade me

to return to the kind of life Kelsey used to advocate and I once enjoyed:12-hour working days, pressured deadlines,

the fearful strain of office politics and the limitations of being a parent on “quality time”.

In America, the move away from juggling to a simpler, less materialistic lifestyle is a well-established trend.

Downshifting?also known in America as “voluntary simplicity”?has, ironically, even bred a new area of what

might be termed anti-consumerism. There are a number of best-selling downshifting self-help books for people who

want to simplify their lives; there are newsletters, such as The Tightwad Gazette, that give hundreds of thousands of

Americans useful tips on anything from recycling their cling-film to making their own soap; there are even support

groups for those who want to achieve the mid-’90s equivalent of dropping out.

While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline?after the mass redundancies caused

by downsizing in the late ’80s?and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middle-class

downshifters of my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives.

For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the ’80s, downshifting in the mid-

’90s is not so much a search for the mythical good life?growing your own organic vegetables, and risking turning

into one?as a personal recognition of your limitations.

67. Which of the following is true according to paragraph 1?

[A] Full-time employment is a new international trend.

[B] The writer was compelled by circumstances to leave her job.

[C] “A lateral move” means stepping out of full-time employment.

[D] The writer was only too eager to spend more time with her family.

68. The writer’s experiment shows that downshifting _______.

[A] enables her to realize her dream

[B] helps her mold a new philosophy of life

[C] prompts her to abandon her high social status

[D] leads her to accept the doctrine of She magazine

69. “Juggling one’s life” probably means living a life characterized by _______.

[A] non-materialistic lifestyle [B] a bit of everything

[C] extreme stress [D] anti-consumerism

70. According to the passage, downshifting emerged in the U.S. as a result of _______.

[A] the quick pace of modern life [B] man’s adventurous spirit

[C] man’s search for mythical experiences [D] the economic situation


10


Directions:

Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. Your translation

must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

In less than 30 years’ time the Star Trek holodeck will be a reality. Direct links between the brain’s nervous

system and a computer will also create full sensory virtual environments, allowing virtual vacations like those in the

film Total Recall.

(71) There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable

them when they offend. (72) Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips, computers with in-built

personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools, relaxation will be in front of smell-television, and

digital age will have arrived.

According to BT’s futurologist, Ian Pearson, these are among the developments scheduled for the first few

decades of the new millennium (a period of 1,000 years), when supercomputers will dramatically accelerate progress

in all areas of life.

(73) Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique

millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs

and discoveries to take place. Some of the biggest developments will be in medicine, including an extended life

expectancy and dozens of artificial organs coming into use between now and 2040.

Pearson also predicts a breakthrough in computer-human links. “By linking directly to our nervous system,

computers could pick up what we feel and, hopefully, simulate feeling too so that we can start to develop full sensory

environments, rather like the holidays in Total Recall or the Star Trek holodeck,” he says. (74) But that, Pearson

points out, is only the start of man-machine integration: “It will be the beginning of the long process of integration

that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.”

Through his research, Pearson is able to put dates to most of the breakthroughs that can be predicted. However,

there are still no forecasts for when faster-than-light travel will be available, or when human cloning will be

perfected, or when time travel will be possible. But he does expect social problems as a result of technological

advances. A boom in neighborhood surveillance cameras will, for example, cause problems in 2010, while the arrival

of synthetic lifelike robots will mean people may not be able to distinguish between their human friends and the

droids.

 (75) And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the

breakout of a new psychological disorder?kitchen rage.

11

2001


76. Directions:

Among all the worthy feelings of mankind, love is probably the noblest, but everyone has his / her own under-

standing of it. There has been a discussion recently on the issue in a newspaper. Write an essay to the newspaper to

1) show your understanding of the symbolic meaning of the picture below,

2) give a specific example, and

3) give your suggestion as to the best way to show love.

You should write about 200 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)


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